Title中国老年人口多维度健康状况分析
Other TitlesMain dimensions of health status among the Chinese elderly
Authors曾毅
沈可
Affiliation北京大学国家发展研究院中国经济研究中心,100871
Keywords老年人
日常生活活动
躯体功能
认知
健康状况
自我评价(心理学)
长寿
Elderly
Activities of daily living
Physical performance
Cognition
Health status
Self assessment (psychology)
longevity
Issue Date2010
Publisher中华预防医学杂志
Citation中华预防医学杂志.2010,44,(2),108-114.
Abstract目的 分析中国老年人口的多维度健康状况.方法 采用非等比例抽样方法,从我国22个省(市、自治区)抽取65岁以上老人16 219名.调查其日常生活自理能力(ADL)、躯体功能、认知功能、自评健康和自评生活满意度.分别从年龄、城乡、性别角度进行中国老年人口多维度健康状况的对比分析.结果 65~、70~、80~、90~与100~岁年龄段男性老人生活完全自理的比率分别为98.8%(730/739)、95.2%(1445/1518)、89.1%(1913/2147)、76.3%(1447/1897)和51.6%(329/638),女性老人分别为98.1%(654/667)、94.9%(1291/1361)、87.2%(1851/2124)、70.0%(1888/2699)和46.8%(1136/2428)(χ~2_(性别)=293.00,P<0.01);相应年龄段城镇老人生活完全自理的比率分别为98.0%(561/572)、93.6%(1090/1165)、85.5%(1413/1653)、69.3%(1311/1892)、37.4%(434/1161),农村老人分别为98.7%(823/834)、96.0%(1646/1714)、89.8%(2351/2618)、74.9%(2024/2704)、54.1%(1031/1905)(χ~2_(城乡)=85.97,P<0.01).65~、70~、80~、90~与100~岁年龄段男性老人认知功能良好的比率分别为96.5%(713/739)、90.0%(1364/1516)、72.1%(1547/2145)、49.2%(929/1890)和35.0%(218/623),女性老人分别为94.1%(627/666)、81.9%(1113/1359)、57.2%(1211/2116)、32.4%(870/2688)和17.5%(418/2395)(χ~2_(性别)=893.89,P<0.01);相应年龄段城镇老人认知功能良好的比率分别为97.0%(555/572)、87.9%(1023/1 164)、68.5%(1129/1648)、43.6%(820/1881)、23.0%(258/1124),农村老人分别为94.2%(785/833)、85.0%(1454/1711)、62.3%(1629/2613)、36.3%(979/2679)、20.0%(378/1894)(χ~2_(城乡)=57.92,P<0.01).65~、70~、80~、90~和100一年龄段男性老人自评健康好的比率分别为56.3%(416/739)、50.7%(770/1518)、46.0%(988/2148)、42.7%(809/1897)和43.1%(175/638),女性老人自评健康好的比率分别为48.7%(325/667)、46.1%(627/1361)、43.0%(914/2124)、39.3%(1061/2699)和34.5%(838/2428),各年龄段男性老人自评健康等级优于女性(χ~2=233.91,P<0.01).65~、70~、80~、90~和100~岁年龄段男性老人对目前生活较满意的比率分别为56.2%(415/739)、56.0%(850/1518)、55.7%(1194/2418)、52.9%(1003/1897)和50.5%(322/638),女性老人分别为54.9%(366/667),55.8%(759/1361),53.9%(1144/2124),50.6%(1365/2699)和43.4%(1054/2428).65~岁年龄段男女老人自评生活满意度差异没有统计学意义(χ~2=0.51,P=0.916);70岁以上男性老人的自评生活满意度优于女性(χ~2=218.25,P<0.01).结论 老人生理健康和认知功能良好的比例均随年龄增长而下降;老人的自评健康和自评生活满意度随年龄增长而下降的趋势比较缓慢.农村老人的ADL明显优于城镇老人.男性老人ADL、躯体功能、认知功能和自评健康优于同年龄段女性老人.
Objective To analyze the dimensions of health status among the Chinese elderly. Methods Through unbalanced sampling method,16 219 elderly aged above 65 were sampled from 22 provinces of China. The activities of daily living (ADL),physical performance, cognitive function, self-reported health and life satisfaction were investigated. We conducted comparative dimensions of health analysis across age, genders and rural/urban residences. Results Among the male elderly aged 65 - , 70 - ,80 - ,90 - and 100 - ,98. 8% (730/739) ,95. 2% (1445/1518) ,89. 1% (1913/2147) ,76. 3% (1447/1897) and 51.6% (329/638) were ADL independent,respectively. The corresponding percentages among the female counterparts were 98. 1% (654/667), 94. 9% (1291/1361), 87. 2% (1851/2124), 70. 0% (1888/2699) and 46. 8% (1136/2428), respectively (gender difference in ADL: χ~2 = 293.00, P <0. 01). Among the urban elderly aged 65 - ,70 - ,80 - ,90 - and 100 - ,the percentages were 98.0% (561/572) ,93.6% (1090/1165) ,85.5% (1413/1653) ,69. 3% (1311/1892) and 37.4% (434/1161) respectively. The corresponding percentages among the rural counterparts were 98. 7% (823/834) ,96. 0% (1646/1714), 89. 8% (2351/2618), 74.9% (2024/2704) and 54. 1% (1031/1905) respectively (urban/rural difference in ADL: χ~2 = 85.97, P < 0. 01). Among the male elderly aged 65 - ,70 -, 80 -, 90-and 100-,96.5% (713/739),90.0% (1364/1516),72. 1% (1547/2145),49.2% (929/1890) and 35.0% (218/623) had good cognitive function. The corresponding percentages among the female counterparts were 94. 1% (627/666) ,81.9% (1113/1359) ,57. 2% (1211/2116) ,32.4% (870/2688), 17.5% (418/2395) respectively (gender difference in cognitive function: χ~2 = 893. 89, P < 0. 01). Among the urban elderly aged 65 - ,70 - ,80 - ,90 - and 100 - ,the percentages were 97.0% (555/572) ,87.9% (1023/1164),68.5% (1129/1648),43.6% (820/1881)and 23.0% (258/1124)respectively. The corresponding percentages among the rural counterparts were 94. 2% (785/833) ,85. 0% (1454/1711), 62. 3% (1629/2613) ,36. 3% (979/2679) and 20. 0% (378/1894) ,respectively (urban/rural difference in cognitive function: χ~2 =57.92,P < 0.01). Among the male elderly aged 65- ,70- ,80- ,90- and 100 - ,the self-reported good health were 56. 3% (416/739) ,50. 7% (770/1518) ,46. 0% (988/2148), 42. 7% (809/1897) and 43. 1% (175/638). The corresponding percentages among the female counterparts were 48.7% (325/667) ,46. 1% (627/1361) ,43.0% (914/2124), 39. 3% (1061/2699) and 34. 5% (838/2428). The male elderly of each age group reported better health than the female counterparts (χ~2 = 233.91, P < 0. 01). Among the male elderly aged 65 - ,70 -, 80 - ,90 - and 100 - ,56.2% (415/739), 56. 0% (850/1518) ,55.7% (1194/2418) ,52. 9% (1003/1897) and 50. 5% (322/638) self-reported satisfied life. The corresponding percentages among the female counterparts were 54. 9% (366/667) ,55. 8% (759/1361) ,53.9% (1144/2124), 50. 6% (1365/2699) and 43.4% (1054/2428). The elderly aged 65 - have no significant gender difference in self-reported life (χ~2 = 0. 51, P = 0. 916), while the male elderly aged 70 and above reported more satisfied life than the female counterparts (χ~2 = 218. 25, P < 0. 01). Conclusion Percentages of good physical performance and normal cognitive function dropped dramatically as age increased,but percentages of reporting good health and satisfied life decreased very slowly as age increased. Rural elderly were significantly more active in daily living than urban elderly. Female elderly were seriously disadvantaged in ADL,physical performance,cognitive function and self-reported health as compared with their male counterparts.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11897/36444
ISSN0253-9624
Appears in Collections:国家发展研究院

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