TitleChemical and lead isotope analysis of some lead-barium glass wares from the Warring States Period, unearthed from Chu tombs in Changde City, Hunan Province, China
AuthorsCui, Jianfeng
Wu, Xiaohong
Huang, Baoling
AffiliationPeking Univ, Sch Archaeol & Museol, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.
Peking Univ, Sch Earth & Space, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.
KeywordsLead-barium glass
Chu Kingdom
Chemical analysis
Lead isotope analysis
Issue Date2011
Publisherjournal of archaeological science
CitationJOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE.2011,38,(7),1671-1679.
AbstractIn the context of the present study, we have conducted chemical and lead isotope analyses on twelve ancient glass samples unearthed from Chu tombs in Changde City, Hunan Province. The results of the chemical analysis of these samples show that all samples are PbO-BaO-SiO(2) glasses, thus indicating that they are all traditional ancient Chinese glasses. The chemical results also suggest that all Bi wares may either share a common source or were produced according to similar recipes. In turn, the eye beads are different from the Bi wares for their distinct chemical composition. The chemical results indicate that silica, lead-bearing material, barium-bearing material, and sodium/lime-bearing material are the main independent components of the raw materials employed in the production of these glass wares. However, the lead isotope data pertaining to the Changde lead-barium glass wares show a wide variety of lead isotope ratios corresponding to lead-barium glasses, ranging from the highest to the lowest groups of ancient lead-barium glasses identified in the existing literature. Furthermore, the lead isotope analysis (LIA) results are not consistent with the results of the chemical analysis, for the latter suggest that the different chemical compositions of the Bi wares and the eye beads were not caused by distinct ore sources, but by different technologies. The LIA results also indicate that the early Chinese lead-barium glasses with the lowest and highest (207)Pb/(206)Pb values were mainly made in the southern region of the ancient Chu Kingdom during the Warring States Period. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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