TitleAbating ammonia is more cost-effective than nitrogen oxides for mitigating PM2.5 air pollution
AuthorsGu, Baojing
Zhang, Lin
Van Dingenen, Rita
Vieno, Massimo
Van Grinsven, Hans J. M.
Zhang, Xiuming
Zhang, Shaohui
Chen, Youfan
Wang, Sitong
Ren, Chenchen
Rao, Shilpa
Holland, Mike
Winiwarter, Wilfried
Chen, Deli
Xu, Jianming
Sutton, Mark A.
AffiliationZhejiang Univ, Coll Environm & Resource Sci, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China
Zhejiang Univ, Zhejiang Prov Key Lab Agr Resources & Environm, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China
Peking Univ, Sch Phys, Dept Atmospher & Ocean Sci, Lab Climate & Ocean Atmosphere Studies, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, I-21027 Ispra, VA, Italy
Edinburgh Res Stn, UK Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian, Scotland
PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, NL-2500 GH The Hague, Netherlands
Univ Melbourne, Sch Agr & Food, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia
Beihang Univ, Sch Econ & Management, Beijing 100091, Peoples R China
Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
Zhejiang Univ, Dept Land Management, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China
Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, N-0213 Oslo, Norway
Ecometr Res & Consulting, Reading RG8 7PW, Berks, England
Univ Zielona Gora, Inst Environm Engn, PL-65417 Zielona Gora, Poland
KeywordsPARTICULATE MATTER
REACTIVE NITROGEN
HAZE EVENTS
EMISSIONS
MODEL
QUALITY
GASES
AEROSOLS
EUROPE
CHINA
Issue Date5-Nov-2021
PublisherSCIENCE
AbstractFine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers) in the atmosphere is associated with severe negative impacts on human health, and the gases sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia are the main PM2.5 precursors. However, their contribution to global health impacts has not yet been analyzed. Here, we show that nitrogen accounted for 39% of global PM2.5 exposure in 2013, increasing from 30% in 1990 with rising reactive nitrogen emissions and successful controls on sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen emissions to air caused an estimated 23.3 million years of life lost in 2013, corresponding to an annual welfare loss of 420 billion United States dollars for premature death. The marginal abatement cost of ammonia emission is only 10% that of nitrogen oxides emission globally, highlighting the priority for ammonia reduction.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11897/629137
ISSN0036-8075
DOI10.1126/science.abf8623
IndexedSCI(E)
Appears in Collections:物理学院

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