TitleThe power of genetic diversity in genome-wide association studies of lipids
AuthorsGraham, Sarah E.
Clarke, Shoa L.
Wu, Kuan-Han H.
Kanoni, Stavroula
Zajac, Greg J. M.
Ramdas, Shweta
Surakka, Ida
Ntalla, Ioanna
Vedantam, Sailaja
Winkler, Thomas W.
Locke, Adam E.
Marouli, Eirini
Hwang, Mi Yeong
Han, Sohee
Narita, Akira
Choudhury, Ananyo
Bentley, Amy R.
Ekoru, Kenneth
Verma, Anurag
Trivedi, Bhavi
Martin, Hilary C.
Hunt, Karen A.
Hui, Qin
Klarin, Derek
Zhu, Xiang
Thorleifsson, Gudmar
Helgadottir, Anna
Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.
Holm, Hilma
Olafsson, Isleifur
Akiyama, Masato
Sakaue, Saori
Terao, Chikashi
Kanai, Masahiro
Zhou, Wei
Brumpton, Ben M.
Rasheed, Humaira
Ruotsalainen, Sanni E.
Havulinna, Aki S.
Veturi, Yogasudha
Feng, QiPing
Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.
Lingren, Todd
Pacheco, Jennifer Allen
Pendergrass, Sarah A.
Haessler, Jeffrey
Giulianini, Franco
Bradford, Yuki
Miller, Jason E.
Campbell, Archie
Lin, Kuang
Millwood, Iona Y.
Hindy, George
Rasheed, Asif
Faul, Jessica D.
Zhao, Wei
Weir, David R.
Turman, Constance
Huang, Hongyan
Graff, Mariaelisa
Mahajan, Anubha
Brown, Michael R.
Zhang, Weihua
Yu, Ketian
Schmidt, Ellen M.
Pandit, Anita
Gustafsson, Stefan
Yin, Xianyong
Luan, Jian'an
Zhao, Jing-Hua
Matsuda, Fumihiko
Jang, Hye-Mi
Yoon, Kyungheon
Medina-Gomez, Carolina
Pitsillides, Achilleas
Hottenga, Jouke Jan
Willemsen, Gonneke
Wood, Andrew R.
Ji, Yingji
Gao, Zishan
Haworth, Simon
Mitchell, Ruth E.
Chai, Jin Fang
Aadahl, Mette
Yao, Jie
Manichaikul, Ani
Warren, Helen R.
Ramirez, Julia
Bork-Jensen, Jette
Karhus, Line L.
Goel, Anuj
Sabater-Lleal, Maria
Noordam, Raymond
Sidore, Carlo
Fiorillo, Edoardo
McDaid, Aaron F.
Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Wielscher, Matthias
Trompet, Stella
Sattar, Naveed
Mollehave, Line T.
Thuesen, Betina H.
Munz, Matthias
Zeng, Lingyao
Huang, Jianfeng
Yang, Bin
Poveda, Alaitz
Kurbasic, Azra
Lamina, Claudia
Forer, Lukas
Scholz, Markus
Galesloot, Tessel E.
Bradfield, Jonathan P.
Daw, E. Warwick
Zmuda, Joseph M.
Mitchell, Jonathan S.
Fuchsberger, Christian
Christensen, Henry
Brody, Jennifer A.
Feitosa, Mary F.
Wojczynski, Mary K.
Preuss, Michael
Mangino, Massimo
Christofidou, Paraskevi
Verweij, Niek
Benjamins, Jan W.
Engmann, Jorgen
Kember, Rachel L.
Slieker, Roderick C.
Lo, Ken Sin
Zilhao, Nuno R.
Phuong Le
Kleber, Marcus E.
Delgado, Graciela E.
Huo, Shaofeng
Ikeda, Daisuke D.
Iha, Hiroyuki
Yang, Jian
Liu, Jun
Leonard, Hampton L.
Marten, Jonathan
Schmidt, Borge
Arendt, Marina
Smyth, Laura J.
Canadas-Garre, Marisa
Wang, Chaolong
Nakatochi, Masahiro
Wong, Andrew
Hutri-Kahonen, Nina
Sim, Xueling
Xia, Rui
Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia
Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos
Lyssenko, Valeriya
Ahmed, Meraj
Jackson, Anne U.
Irvin, Marguerite R.
Oldmeadow, Christopher
Kim, Han-Na
Ryu, Seungho
Timmers, Paul R. H. J.
Arbeeva, Liubov
Dorajoo, Rajkumar
Lange, Leslie A.
Chai, Xiaoran
Prasad, Gauri
Lores-Motta, Laura
Pauper, Marc
Long, Jirong
Li, Xiaohui
Theusch, Elizabeth
Takeuchi, Fumihiko
Spracklen, Cassandra N.
Loukola, Anu
Bollepalli, Sailalitha
Warner, Sophie C.
Wang, Ya Xing
Wei, Wen B.
Nutile, Teresa
Ruggiero, Daniela
Sung, Yun Ju
Hung, Yi-Jen
Chen, Shufeng
Liu, Fangchao
Yang, Jingyun
Kentistou, Katherine A.
Gorski, Mathias
Brumat, Marco
Meidtner, Karina
Bielak, Lawrence F.
Smith, Jennifer A.
Hebbar, Prashantha
Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni
Hofer, Edith
Lin, Maoxuan
Xue, Chao
Zhang, Jifeng
Concas, Maria Pina
Vaccargiu, Simona
van der Most, Peter J.
Pitkanen, Niina
Cade, Brian E.
Lee, Jiwon
van Der Laan, Sander W.
Chitrala, Kumaraswamy Naidu
Weiss, Stefan
Zimmermann, Martina E.
Lee, Jong Young
Choi, Hyeok Sun
Nethander, Maria
Freitag-Wolf, Sandra
Southam, Lorraine
Rayner, Nigel W.
Wang, Carol A.
Lin, Shih-Yi
Wang, Jun-Sing
Couture, Christian
Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka
Nikus, Kjell
Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
Vestergaard, Henrik
Hildalgo, Bertha
Giannakopoulou, Olga
Cai, Qiuyin
Obura, Morgan O.
van Setten, Jessica
Li, Xiaoyin
Schwander, Karen
Terzikhan, Natalie
Shin, Jae Hun
Jackson, Rebecca D.
Reiner, Alexander P.
Martin, Lisa Warsinger
Chen, Zhengming
Li, Liming
Highland, Heather M.
Young, Kristin L.
Kawaguchi, Takahisa
Thiery, Joachim
Bis, Joshua C.
Nadkarni, Girish N.
Launer, Lenore J.
Li, Huaixing
Nalls, Mike A.
Raitakari, Olli T.
Ichihara, Sahoko
Wild, Sarah H.
Nelson, Christopher P.
Campbell, Harry
Jager, Susanne
Nabika, Toru
Al-Mulla, Fahd
Niinikoski, Harri
Braund, Peter S.
Kolcic, Ivana
Kovacs, Peter
Giardoglou, Tota
Katsuya, Tomohiro
Bhatti, Fatima
de Kleijn, Dominique
de Borst, Gert J.
Kim, Eung Kweon
Adams, Hieab H. H.
Ikram, M. Arfan
Zhu, Xiaofeng
Asselbergs, Folkert W.
Kraaijeveld, Adriaan O.
Beulens, Joline W. J.
Shu, Xiao-Ou
Rallidis, Loukianos S.
Pedersen, Oluf
Hansen, Torben
Mitchell, Paul
Hewitt, Alex W.
Kahonen, Mika
Perusse, Louis
Bouchard, Claude
Tonjes, Anke
Chen, Yii-Der Ida
Pennell, Craig E.
Mori, Trevor A.
Lieb, Wolfgang
Franke, Andre
Ohlsson, Claes
Mellstrom, Dan
Cho, Yoon Shin
Lee, Hyejin
Yuan, Jian-Min
Koh, Woon-Puay
Rhee, Sang Youl
Woo, Jeong-Taek
Heid, Iris M.
Stark, Klaus J.
Volzke, Henry
Homuth, Georg
Evans, Michele K.
Zonderman, Alan B.
Polasek, Ozren
Pasterkamp, Gerard
Hoefer, Imo E.
Redline, Susan
Pahkala, Katja
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Snieder, Harold
Biino, Ginevra
Schmidt, Reinhold
Schmidt, Helena
Chen, Y. Eugene
Bandinelli, Stefania
Dedoussis, George
Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse
Kardia, Sharon L. R.
Kato, Norihiro
Schulze, Matthias B.
Girotto, Giorgia
Jung, Bettina
Boger, Carsten A.
Joshi, Peter K.
Bennett, David A.
De Jager, Philip L.
Lu, Xiangfeng
Mamakou, Vasiliki
Brown, Morris
Caulfield, Mark J.
Munroe, Patricia B.
Guo, Xiuqing
Ciullo, Marina
Jonas, Jost B.
Samani, Nilesh J.
Kaprio, Jaakko
Pajukanta, Paivi
Adair, Linda S.
Bechayda, Sonny Augustin
de Silva, H. Janaka
Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.
Krauss, Ronald M.
Wu, Jer-Yuarn
Zheng, Wei
den Hollander, Anneke, I
Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan
Correa, Adolfo
Wilson, James G.
Lind, Lars
Heng, Chew-Kiat
Nelson, Amanda E.
Golightly, Yvonne M.
Wilson, James F.
Penninx, Brenda
Kim, Hyung-Lae
Attia, John
Scott, Rodney J.
Rao, D. C.
Arnett, Donna K.
Walker, Mark
Koistinen, Heikki A.
Chandak, Giriraj R.
Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.
Mercader, Josep M.
Tusie-Luna, Teresa
Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
Villalpando, Clicerio Gonzalez
Orozco, Lorena
Fornage, Myriam
Tai, E. Shyong
van Dam, Rob M.
Lehtimaki, Terho
Chaturvedi, Nish
Yokota, Mitsuhiro
Liu, Jianjun
Reilly, Dermot F.
McKnight, Amy Jayne
Kee, Frank
Jockel, Karl-Heinz
McCarthy, Mark, I
Palmer, Colin N. A.
Vitart, Veronique
Hayward, Caroline
Simonsick, Eleanor
van Duijn, Cornelia M.
Lu, Fan
Qu, Jia
Hishigaki, Haretsugu
Lin, Xu
Marz, Winfried
Parra, Esteban J.
Cruz, Miguel
Gudnason, Vilmundur
Tardif, Jean-Claude
Lettre, Guillaume
't Hart, Leen M.
Elders, Petra J. M.
Damrauer, Scott M.
Kumari, Meena
Kivimaki, Mika
van der Harst, Pim
Spector, Tim D.
Loos, Ruth J. F.
Province, Michael A.
Psaty, Bruce M.
Brandslund, Ivan
Pramstaller, Peter P.
Christensen, Kaare
Ripatti, Samuli
Widen, Elisabeth
Hakonarson, Hakon
Grant, Struan F. A.
Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.
de Graaf, Jacqueline
Loeffler, Markus
Kronenberg, Florian
Gu, Dongfeng
Erdmann, Jeanette
Schunkert, Heribert
Franks, Paul W.
Linneberg, Allan
Jukema, J. Wouter
Khera, Amit, V
Mannikko, Minna
Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
Kutalik, Zoltan
Cucca, Francesco
Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.
van Dijk, Ko Willems
Watkins, Hugh
Strachan, David P.
Grarup, Niels
Sever, Peter
Poulter, Neil
Rotter, Jerome, I
Dantoft, Thomas M.
Karpe, Fredrik
Neville, Matt J.
Timpson, Nicholas J.
Cheng, Ching-Yu
Wong, Tien-Yin
Khor, Chiea Chuen
Sabanayagam, Charumathi
Peters, Annette
Gieger, Christian
Hattersley, Andrew T.
Pedersen, Nancy L.
Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
Boomsma, Dorret, I
de Geus, Eco J. C.
Cupples, L. Adrienne
van Meurs, Joyce B. J.
Ghanbari, Mohsen
Rsen, Penny Gordon-La
Huang, Wei
Kim, Young Jin
Tabara, Yasuharu
Wareham, Nicholas J.
Langenberg, Claudia
Zeggini, Eleftheria
Kuusisto, Johanna
Laakso, Markku
Ingelsson, Erik
Abecasis, Goncalo
Chambers, John C.
Kooner, Jaspal S.
de Vries, Paul S.
Morrison, Alanna C.
North, Kari E.
Daviglus, Martha
Kraft, Peter
Martin, Nicholas G.
Whitfield, John B.
Abbas, Shahid
Saleheen, Danish
Walters, Robin G.
Holmes, Michael, V
Black, Corri
Smith, Blair H.
Justice, Anne E.
Baras, Aris
Buring, Julie E.
Ridker, Paul M.
Chasman, Daniel, I
Kooperberg, Charles
Wei, Wei-Qi
Jarvik, Gail P.
Namjou, Bahram
Hayes, M. Geoffrey
Ritchie, Marylyn D.
Jousilahti, Pekka
Salomaa, Veikko
Hveem, Kristian
Asvold, Bjorn Olav
Kubo, Michiaki
Kamatani, Yoichiro
Okada, Yukinori
Murakami, Yoshinori
Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
Stefansson, Kari
Ho, Yuk-Lam
Lynch, Julie A.
Rader, Daniel J.
Tsao, Philip S.
Chang, Kyong-Mi
Cho, Kelly
O'Donnell, Christopher J.
Gaziano, John M.
Wilson, Peter
Rotimi, Charles N.
Hazelhurst, Scott
Ramsay, Michele
Trembath, Richard C.
van Heel, David A.
Tamiya, Gen
Yamamoto, Masayuki
Kim, Bong-Jo
Mohlke, Karen L.
Frayling, Timothy M.
Hirschhorn, Joel N.
Kathiresan, Sekar
Boehnke, Michael
Natarajan, Pradeep
Peloso, Gina M.
Brown, Christopher D.
Morris, Andrew P.
Assimes, Themistocles L.
Deloukas, Panos
Sun, Yan, V
Willer, Cristen J.
AffiliationUniv Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Div Cardiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
VA Palo Alto Hlth Care Syst, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA
Stanford Univ, Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London, England
Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Dept Genet, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, Clin Pharmacol, London, England
Boston Childrens Hosp, Endocrinol, Boston, MA USA
Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA
Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, Regensburg, Germany
Washington Univ, McDonnell Genome Inst, St Louis, MO 63110 USA
Washington Univ, Dept Med, St Louis, MO USA
Natl Inst Hlth, Dept Precis Med, Div Genome Sci, Cheongju, South Korea
Tohoku Univ, Tohoku Med Megabank Org, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
Univ Witwatersrand, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney Brenner Inst Mol Biosci, Johannesburg, South Africa
NHGRI, Ctr Res Genom & GLobal Hearth, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA
Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, Blizard Inst, London, England
Wellcome Sanger Inst, Hinxton, England
Emory Univ, Rollins Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA
Atlanta VA Hlth Care Syst, Decatur, GA USA
Malcolm Randall VA Med Ctr, Gainesville, FL USA
Univ Florida, Coll Med, Div Vasc Surg & Endovasc Therapy, Gainesville, FL USA
Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
Penn State Univ, Dept Stat, University Pk, PA 16802 USA
Penn State Univ, Huck Inst Life Sci, University Pk, PA 16802 USA
Stanford Univ, Dept Stat, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland
Univ Iceland, Sch Engn & Nat Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland
Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Clin Biochem, Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland
RIKEN, Lab Stat Anal, Ctr Integrat Med Sci, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
Kyushu Univ, Grad Sch Med Sci, Dept Ophthalmol, Fukuoka, Japan
Osaka Univ, Dept Stat Genet, Grad Sch Med, Osaka, Japan
Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Allergy & Rheumatol, Tokyo, Japan
RIKEN, Lab Stat & Translat Genet, Ctr Integrat Med Sci, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
Harvard Med Sch, Dept Biomed Informat, Boston, MA 02115 USA
Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA
Broad Inst Harvard & MIT, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA
Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, KG Jebsen Ctr Genet Epidemiol, Dept Publ Hlth & Nursing, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England
Trondheim Reg & Univ Hosp, Dept Thorac Med, St Olavs Hosp, Trondheim, Norway
Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, HiLIFE, Helsinki, Finland
Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Publ Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland
Univ Penn, Inst Biomed Informat, Dept Genet, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Vanderbilt Univ Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Clin Pharmacol, Nashville, TN USA
Univ Washington, Dept Med Med Genet, Seattle, WA 98195 USA
Cincinnati Childrens Hosp Med Ctr, Div Biomed Informat, Cincinnati, OH 45229 USA
Northwestern Univ, Ctr Genet Med, Evanston, IL USA
Genentech Inc, San Francisco, CA 94080 USA
Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, 1124 Columbia St, Seattle, WA 98104 USA
Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Prevent Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA
Univ Edinburgh, Western Gen Hosp, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England
Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hearth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England
Univ Oxford, Med Res Council Populat Hlth Res Unit, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England
Qatar Univ, Dept Populat Med, QU Hlth, Coll Med, Doha, Qatar
Ctr Noncommunicable Dis, Karachi, Pakistan
Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI USA
Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Program Genet Epidemiol & Stat Genet, Boston, MA USA
Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC USA
Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England
Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Human Genet Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Sch Publ Hlth, Houston, TX 77030 USA
Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England
London North West Univ Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Southall, Middx, England
Imperial Coll Healthcare NHS Trust, London, England
Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Mol Epidemiol & Sci Life Lab, Uppsala, Sweden
Univ Cambridge, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England
Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Strangeways Res Lab, Cambridge, England
Kyoto Univ, Ctr Genom Med, Grad Sch Med, Kyoto, Japan
Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Internal Med, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA
Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands
VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam Publ Hlth, Amsterdam, Netherlands
VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Univ Exeter, Univ Exeter Med Sch, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter, Devon, England
Nanjing Univ Chinese Med, Dept Clin Acupuncture & Moxibust, Nanjing, Peoples R China
Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Neuherberg, Germany
Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Neuherberg, Germany
Univ Bristol, Bristol Dent Sch, Bristol, Avon, England
Univ Bristol, Bristol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England
Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore
Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore, Singapore
Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Ctr Clin Res & Prevent, Copenhagen, Denmark
Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Lundquist Inst Biomed Innovat, LABioMed, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci,Dept Pediat, Torrance, CA 90509 USA
Univ Virginia, Ctr Publ Hlth Genom, Charlottesville, VA USA
Queen Mary Univ London, John Vane Sci Ctr, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London, England
Queen Mary Univ London, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Biomed Res Ctr, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, London, England
Univ Copenhagen, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark
Univ Oxford, John Radcliffe Hosp, Radcliffe Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Oxford, England
Hosp Santa Creu & St Pau IIB St Pau, Grp Genom Complex Dis, Res Inst, Barcelona, Spain
Karolinska Univ Hosp, Ctr Mol Med, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med,Cardiovasc Med Unit, Stockholm, Sweden
Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Sect Gerontol & Geriatr, Leiden, Netherlands
Italian Natl Council Res IRGB CNR, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Cagliari, Italy
Italian Natl Council Res IRGB CNR, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Lanusei, Italy
Univ Lausanne, Univ Ctr Primary Care & Publ Hlth, Lausanne, Switzerland
Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Lausanne, Switzerland
Lausanne Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Internal Med, Lausanne, Switzerland
Univ Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England
Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Leiden, Netherlands
BHF Glasgow Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Fac Med, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland
Univ Lubeck, Univ Heart Ctr Lubeck, DZHK German Res Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Inst Cardiogenet,Partner Site Hamburg Lubeck Kiel, Lubeck, Germany
Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany
Berlin Inst Hlth, Inst Dent & Craniofacial Sci, Dept Periodontol & Synopt Dent, Berlin, Germany
Tech Univ Munich, Deutsch Herzzentrum Munchen, Klin Herz & Kreislauferkrankungen, Munich, Germany
Deutsch Zentrum Herz Kreislauf Forsch DZHK, Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany
Chinese Acad Med Sci & Peking Union Med Coll, Fuwai Hosp, Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Key Lab Cardiovasc Epidemiol,State Key Lab Cardio, Beijing, Peoples R China
Chinese Acad Med Sci & Peking Union Med Coll, Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Fuwai Hosp, State Key Lab Cardiovasc Dis,Dept Epidemiol, Beijing, Peoples R China
Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden
Med Univ Innsbruck, Inst Genet Epidemiol, Dept Genet & Pharmacol, Innsbruck, Austria
German Chron Kidney Dis Study, Innsbruck, Austria
Univ Leipzig, Inst Med Informat Stat & Epidemiol, Leipzig, Germany
Univ Leipzig, LIFE Res Ctr Civilizat Dis, Leipzig, Germany
Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands
Quantinuum Res, Wayne, PA USA
Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Div Stat Genom, St Louis, MO 63110 USA
Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Epidemiol, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA
Univ Lubeck, Affiliated Inst, Eurac Res, Inst Biomed, Bolzano, Italy
Lillebaelt Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, Vejle, Denmark
Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA
Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA
Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London, England
Guys & St Thomas Fdn Trust, NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, London, England
Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, Groningen, Netherlands
UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London, England
UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England
Univ Penn, Dept Psychiat, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Amsterdam UMC, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cell & Chem Biol, Leiden, Netherlands
Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada
Iceland Heart Assoc, Reykjavik, Iceland
Univ Toronto Mississauga, Dept Anthropol, Mississauga, ON, Canada
Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Med 5, Mannheim, Germany
Synlab MVZ Humangenet Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Nutr & Hlth, Shanghai, Peoples R China
Otsuka Pharmaceut Co Ltd, Tokushima Res Inst, Biomed Technol Res Ctr, Tokushima, Japan
Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
Wenzhou Med Univ, Inst Adv Res, Wenzhou, Peoples R China
Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England
NIA, Lab Neurogenet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA
Data Tecn Int, Glen Echo, MD USA
Univ Edinburgh, Western Gen Hosp, Inst Genet & Canc, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometrie & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany
Univ Appl Sci & Arts Dortmund, Dept Comp Sci, Dortmund, Germany
Queens Univ Belfast, Ctr Publ Hlth, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland
Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Tongji Med Coll, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Wuhan, Peoples R China
Agcy Sci Technol & Res, Genome Inst Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Nagoya Univ, Dept Integrated Hlth Sci, Publ Hlth Informat Unit, Grad Sch Med, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
UCL, MRC Unit Lifelong Hlth & Ageing, London, England
Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Tampere, Finland
Tampere Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Technol, Dept Pediat, Tampere, Finland
Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, McGovern Med Sch, Brown Fdn Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA
UNAM, Dept Med Genom & Toxicol Ambiental, Inst Invest Biomed, Ciudad De Mexico, Mexico
Inst Nacl Med Genom, Dept Genom Computac, Ciudad De Mexico, Mexico
Univ Bergen, Ctr Diabet Res, Bergen, Norway
CSIR Ctr Cellular & Mol Biol, Genom Res Complex Dis GRC Grp, Hyderabad, India
Univ Alabama Birmingham, Sch Publ Hlth, Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA
Hunter Med Res Inst, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
Sungkyunkwan Univ, Kangbuk Samsung Hosp, Med Res Inst, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea
Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Clin Res Design & Evaluat, SAIHST, Seoul, South Korea
Sungkyunkwan Univ, Kangbuk Samsung Hosp, Ctr Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Ctr,Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea
Sungkyunkwan Univ, Kangbuk Samsung Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea
Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Univ N Carolina, Thurston Arthrit Res Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC USA
Univ Colorado, Dept Med, Div Biomed Informat & Personalized Med, Anschutz Med Campus, Aurora, CO USA
Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Ocular Epidemiol, Singapore, Singapore
Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Ophthalmol, Singapore, Singapore
CSIR, Genom & Mol Med Unit, Inst Genom & Integrat Biol, New Delhi, India
Acad Sci & Innovat Res, CSIR Inst Genom & Integrat Biol Campus, New Delhi, India
Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Ophthalmol, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands
Vanderbilt Univ Sch Med, Vanderbilt Epidemiol Ctr, Div Epidemiol, Nashville, TN USA
Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Pediat, Oakland, CA USA
Natl Ctr Global Hlth & Med, Tokyo, Japan
Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC USA
Univ Massachusetts, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Amherst, MA 01003 USA
Univ Leicester, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester, Leics, England
Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Biomed Res Ctr, Leicester, Leics, England
Beijing Inst Ophthalmol, Beijing Key Lab Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China
Capital Med Univ, Beijing Tongren Hosp, Beijing Tongren Eye Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China
CNR, Inst Genet & Biophys Adriano Buzzati Traverso, Naples, Italy
IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Isernia, Italy
Washington Univ, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA
Triserv Gen Hosp, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Songshan Branch, Taipei, Taiwan
Rush Univ Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL USA
Rush Univ Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL USA
Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, Regensburg, Germany
Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Trieste, Italy
German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbrucke, Dept Mol Epidemiol, Nuthetal, Germany
German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany
Dasman Diabet Inst, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Kuwait, Kuwait
Harokopio Univ Athens, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens, Greece
UCL, Dept Populat Sci & Expt Med, London, England
Med Univ Graz, Dept Neurol, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Graz, Austria
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IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy
UOS Sassari, Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Sassari, Italy
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Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland
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Harvard Med Sch, Div Sleep Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA
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NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, Intramural Res Program, NIH,Biomed Res Ctr, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA
Univ Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Dept Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany
Oneomics, Bucheon, South Korea
Hallym Univ, Dept Biomed Sci, Chunchon, South Korea
Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Ctr Bone & Arthrit Res, Inst Med, Gothenburg, Sweden
Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Bioinformat Core Facil, Gothenburg, Sweden
Univ Kiel, Inst Med Informat & Stat, Kiel, Germany
Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Translat Genom, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Neuherberg, Germany
Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Hinxton, England
Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England
Univ Newcastle, Coll Hlth Med & Wellbeing, Sch Med & Publ Hlth, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
Taichung Vet Gen Hosp, Ctr Geriatr & Gerontol, Dept Internal Med, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Taichung, Taiwan
Natl Yang Ming Univ, Sch Med, Taipei, Taiwan
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Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland
Tampere Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Technol, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland
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Tampere Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Technol, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Dept Cardiol, Tampere, Finland
Univ Queensland, Translat Res Inst, Diamantina Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
Bornholms Hosp, Dept Med, Ronne, Denmark
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Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Populat & Quantitat Hlth Sci, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
Ohio State Univ, Div Endocrinol, Columbus, OH 43210 USA
Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA
George Washington Univ, Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Washington, DC 20052 USA
Peking Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Hlth Sci Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China
Univ Hosp Leipzig, Inst Lab Med, Leipzig, Germany
NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA
Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland
Jichi Med Univ, Dept Environm & Prevent Med, Sch Med, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Populat Hlth Sci, Usher Inst, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Shimane Univ, Dept Funct Pathol, Sch Med, Izumo, Shimane, Japan
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Univ Turku, Turku, Finland
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Univ Split, Fac Med, Split, Croatia
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Harokopio Univ, Dept Nutr Dietet, Athens, Greece
Osaka Univ, Dept Clin Gene Therapy, Grad Sch Med, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Osaka Univ, Dept Geriatr & Gen Med, Grad Sch Med, Suita, Osaka, Japan
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Yonsei Univ, Corneal Dystrophy Res Inst, Dept Ophthalmol, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea
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Univ Sydney, Westmead Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia
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Pennington Biomed Res Ctr, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 USA
Univ Western Australia, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Med Sch, Perth, WA, Australia
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Univ Kiel, Inst Clin Mol Biol, Kiel, Germany
Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Drug Treatment, Gothenburg, Sweden
Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Geriatr Med, Gothenburg, Sweden
Ewha Womans Univ, Dept Internal Med, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea
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Univ Pittsburgh, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA
Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Hlth Longev Translat Res Programme, Singapore, Singapore
ASTAR, Singapore Inst Clin Sci, Singapore, Singapore
Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea
Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany
Univ Turku, Paavo Nurmi Ctr, Dept Phys Act & Hlth, Sports & Exercise Med Unit, Turku, Finland
Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands
Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Mol Genet, Pavia, Italy
Med Univ Graz, Gottfried Schatz Res Ctr Cell Signaling Metab & A, Graz, Austria
Toscana Ctr, Local Hlth Unit, Florence, Italy
Univ Potsdam, Inst Nutr Sci, Nuthetal, Germany
Traunstein Hosp, Dept Nephrol Diabetol Rheumatol, Traunstein, Germany
KfH Kidney Ctr Traunstein, Traunstein, Germany
Columbia Univ, Ctr Translat & Syst Neuroimmunol, Dept Neurol, Med Ctr, New York, NY USA
Broad Inst, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA
Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Med Sch, Athens, Greece
Dromokaiteio Psychiat Hosp, Athens, Greece
Queen Mary Univ London, William Harvey Res Inst, Clin Pharmacol, London, England
Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany
Capital Med Univ, Beijing Tongren Hosp, Beijing Tongren Eye Ctr, Beijing Inst Ophthalmol, Beijing, Peoples R China
Inst Mol & Clin Ophthalmol Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA
Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med,
KeywordsLOW-FREQUENCY
LOCI
METAANALYSIS
CHOLESTEROL
ANCESTRY
POLYMORPHISMS
DISCOVERY
VARIANTS
RISK
INDIVIDUALS
Issue DateDec-2021
PublisherNATURE
AbstractIncreased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use(1). Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels(2), heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide(3). Genome-wideassociation studies (GWAS) of blood lipid levels have led to important biological and clinical insights, as well as new drug targets, for cardiovascular disease. However, most previous GWAS(4-23) have been conducted in European ancestry populations and may have missed genetic variants that contribute to lipid-level variation in other ancestry groups. These include differences in allele frequencies, effect sizes and linkage-disequilibrium patterns(24). Here we conduct a multi-ancestry, genome-wide genetic discovery meta-analysis of lipid levels in approximately 1.65 million individuals, including 350,000 of non-European ancestries. We quantify the gain in studying non-European ancestries and provide evidence to support the expansion of recruitment of additional ancestries, even with relatively small sample sizes. We find that increasing diversity rather than studying additional individuals of European ancestry results in substantial improvements in fine-mapping functional variants and portability of polygenic prediction (evaluated in approximately 295,000 individuals from 7 ancestry groupings). Modest gains in the number of discovered loci and ancestry-specific variants were also achieved. As GWAS expand emphasis beyond the identification of genes and fundamental biology towards the use of genetic variants for preventive and precision medicine(25), we anticipate that increased diversity of participants will lead to more accurate and equitable(26) application of polygenic scores in clinical practice.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11897/631562
ISSN0028-0836
DOI10.1038/s41586-021-04064-3
IndexedSCI(E)
Appears in Collections:公共卫生学院

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